The Psalms Targum: An English Translation


Edward M. Cook


2001 Edward M. Cook.


Psalm 1

1.       Happy the man who has not walked in the council of the wicked, or stood in the paths of sinners, or taken a seat in the band of mockers.

2.       Instead his pleasure is in the law of the Lord, and in his Torah he meditates day and night.

3.       And he will be like a living tree planted by streams of water, whose fruit ripens in due course, and its leaves do not fall, and all its branches that grow ripen and flourish.

4.       Not so the wicked; instead, they are like the chaff that the storm-wind will drive.

5.       Therefore the wicked will not be acquitted[1] in the great day,[2] nor sinners in the band of the righteous,

6.       Because the path of the righteous is manifest in the Lords presence, but the paths of the wicked will perish.


Psalm 2

1.     Why are the Gentiles disturbed, and the nations murmuring vanity?

2.     The kings[3] of the earth arise and the rulers will join together to rebel in the Lords presence, and to strive against his Anointed.

3.     They say,[4] Let us break their bonds, and let us throw off their chains from us.

4.     The one who sits in heaven will laugh; the word of the Lord will mock at them.

5.     Then he will speak to them in his strength, and in his wrath he will frighten them.

6.     I have anointed my king, and appointed him over my sanctuary.[5]

7.     I will tell of the covenant of the Lord. He said:[6] You are as dear to me as a son to a father (abba), pure as if this day I had created you.

8.     Ask me and I will give the riches of the Gentiles as your inheritance, the rulers of[7] the ends of the earth as your holding.

9.     You will shatter them as with a rod of iron, like a potters vessel you will break them.

10.  And now, O kings, grow wise; accept discipline, O princes of the earth.

11.  Worship in the presence of the Lord with fear, and pray with trembling.

12.  Accept instruction lest he be angry, and you lose your way; for his wrath[8] will tarry a little. Happy all who trust in his word!


Psalm 3

1.     A psalm of David, when he fled from the presence of Absalom his son.

2.     O Lord, how many are my oppressors, many who arise against me.

3.     Many say to my soul, There is no redemption for him in God forever.

4.     But you, O Lord, are a shield over me, my glory and the one who raises my head.

5.     I pray [with] my voice in the presence of the Lord; he will accept[9] my prayer from the mount of his sanctuary forever.

6.     I lay down, and I slept; I awoke, because the Lord sustains me.

7.     I will not be afraid of the strife[10] of people who have gathered against me all around.

8.     Arise, O Lord, redeem me, O my God; for you have struck all my enemies on their cheek, you have broken the teeth of the wicked.

9.     Redemption is from the presence of the Lord; your blessings are to your people forever.


Psalm 4

1.       For praise, with melodies. A hymn of David.

2.       At the time of my prayer, accept [it] from me, O God of my righteousness; at the time of distress, you relieved me; pity me and accept my prayer.

3.       O sons of men, why is my glory for humiliation? You will love vanity; you will seek falsehood forever.

4.       And they will know,[11] for the Lord has separated the righteous man[12] for himself; the Lord will accept the prayer of David when he calls to him.

5.       Tremble for him, and do not sin; utter your petition with your mouth and your request in your heart; and pray upon your beds and remember the days of death forever.

6.       Subdue your impulses and it will be reckoned to you as a righteous sacrifice; and hope in the Lord.

7.       Many say, Who will show us good? Lift on us the light of your countenance, O Lord.

8.       You have placed joy in my heart when their grain and their wine has increased.

9.       In peace I both lay down and sleep, because you alone are the Lord; in security you will make me dwell.


Psalm 5

1.       For praise, with dancing. A hymn of David.

2.       Hear my utterance, O Lord, consider my murmuring.

3.       Hear the sound of my petition, my king and God, for I will pray in your presence.

4.       O Lord, in the morning hear my voice; in the morning I set myself before you and keep watch.

5.       Because you are not a God who takes pleasure in[13] wickedness; evil did not abide with you.

6.       Scoffers shall not stand before your eyes; you hate all deeds[14] of falsehood.

7.       You will destroy tellers of lies; the Lord will loath the man who sheds innocent blood and the deceiver.

8.       And I, through your great goodness, will enter your house; I will bow down to your holy temple in awe of you.

9.       O Lord, guide me by your righteousness; because of my hymn, make firm your paths before me.

10.    Because there is no reliability in the mouths of the wicked; their bodies are full of tumult; like Sheol, their throat is open; their tongues flatter.

11.    God has accused them; they will be done away with by their counsel; for their great sin he overturned them, for they rebelled against your command.

12.    And all who trust in your word will rejoice forever; they will give praise and you will protect them; and those who love your name will rejoice in you.[15]

13.    Because you will bless the righteous, O Lord; as with a shield, you will crown him with good will.


Psalm 6

1.       For praise; with melodies on the harp of eight strings. A hymn of David.

2.       O Lord, do not humble[16] me in your anger; and do not punish me in your wrath.

3.       Pity me, O Lord,[17] for I am weak; heal me, O Lord, for my bones are terrified.

4.       And my soul is greatly terrified; and you, O Lord, when will you give me relief?

5.       Turn, O Lord, save my soul, redeem me for the sake of your goodness.

6.       For there is no memory of you in death; in Sheol who will give you thanks?

7.       I am wearied with my groaning; I will speak[18] in my sorrow every night on my bed; I will drown my couch with my tears.

8.       My eye is dark from my trouble; it is worn out by all my oppressors.[19]

9.       Leave me, all doers of falsehood; for the Lord has heard[20] the sound of my weeping.

10.    My petition[21] has been heard in the Lords presence; the Lord will accept my prayer.

11.    All of my enemies will be ashamed and very afraid; they will turn and be ashamed in an instant.


Psalm 7

1.       A rendition of the thanksgiving of David, who gave praise to the Lord; for he spoke a song about the ruin of Saul son of Kish, from the tribe of Benjamin.

2.       O Lord my God, I have trusted in your word; deliver me from all my persecutors and save me.

3.       Lest he crush my soul like a lion; he will tear and there is no one who will deliver me.

4.       O Lord my God, if I have made this song with evil intent, if there is oppression in my hand,

5.       If I have repaid my ally with evil, or thrust away my oppressor for nothing,

6.       May the enemy pursue my soul, and may he overtake and trample my life to the ground, and may my honor rest in the dust forever.

7.       Arise, O Lord, in your might; be lifted up in anger against my oppressors; and bring hastily to me the justice that you commanded.

8.       The gathering of the nations will surround you; because of it return to the place of your presence.

9.       The word of the Lord will judge the Gentiles; judge me, O Lord, by my merit, and for my innocence recompense me.

10.    Now may the evil of the wicked perish; and let the righteous be firmly established; and the righteous God examines hearts and minds.[22]

11.    My shield is on God, redeemer of the upright of heart.

12.    God is the righteous judge, and in might is angry at the wicked every day.

13.    If one does not repent and reverence him,[23] his sword is whetted, his bow drawn and ready.

14.    On his account, he has prepared the weapons of death; he will make his arrows for those who pursue the righteous.

15.    Behold, he will be in pains with falsehood, and will conceive trouble, and give birth to falsehood.

16.    He has dug a pit and deepened it; and he fell in the pit he made.

17.    His misery will return on his head; and on his pate his rapacity will descend.

18.    I will thank[24] the Lord according to his righteousness; and I will praise the name of God Most High.


Psalm 8

1.       For praise, on the lyre that he brought from Gath. A hymn of David.

2.       O God[25] our master, how lofty is your name and praiseworthy in all the earth, you who have placed your splendor above the heavens.

3.       From the mouth of children and infants you have established strength because of your oppressors, to bring to naught the enemy and the violent man.

4.       Because I see your heavens, the works of your fingers, the moon and the stars that you have fixed in place,

5.       What is a son of man, because you will remember his deeds, and a son of man, because you will punish him?

6.       And you have made him a little less than the angels, and you will crown him with glory and brightness.

7.       You made him ruler over the works of your hands; all things you have placed under his feet.

8.       Sheep and oxen, all of them, and also the beasts of the field.

9.       The birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, and Leviathan, who passes along[26] the paths of the sea.

10.    O God our master, how lofty and praiseworthy is your name in all the earth!


Psalm 9

1.       For praise, concerning the death of the man[27] who went out between the armies. A hymn of David. another targum: For praise, concerning the sweetness of the sound by a son. A hymn of David.

2.       I will sing praise in the Lords presence with all my heart; I will tell all of your miracles.

3.       I will be glad and rejoice in your word; I will praise your name, O Most High.

4.       When my enemies turn back, they will stumble and perish before you.

5.       Because you have accomplished my vindication and my judgment; you sat down on the throne of the righteous judge.

6.       You rebuked the peoples of the Philistines; you destroyed Goliath the wicked; their name you erased forever and ever.

7.       And when the enemy fell, his forces were obliterated, and their fortresses were laid waste forever, and as for their cities, you destroyed the memory of them forever.

8.       But as for the word of the Lord, his seat is in the highest heaven forever; he has established his throne for judgment.

9.       And he shall judge the people of the earth in righteousness; he will judge the Gentiles in uprightness.

10.    And the word of the Lord will be strength to the poor, strength in times of distress.

11.    And those who know your name will look at[28] your hope[29], because you have not abandoned those who seek you, O Lord.

12.    Sing praise before the Lord who made his presence rest in Zion; tell his deeds among the Gentiles.

13.    For he avenges the innocent blood; he remembers the, he does not neglect[30] the complaint of the humble.

14.    Pity me, O Lord; see my pain caused by my enemies[31], you who lift me up from the entrances of death.

15.    So that I may tell all your praises[32] in the entrances of the gates of the assembly of Zion; I will exult in your redemption.

16.    The peoples have sunk in the pit that they made; in the very net they concealed, their feet are caught.

17.    Manifest before the Lord is the judgement he executed: through the works of his hands,[33] the wicked man stumbled, the righteous will rejoice forever.

18.    The wicked will return to Sheol, all the Gentiles who neglected[34] the fear of the Lord.

19.    For the needy man is not forever neglected;[35] the hope of the humble will not perish forever.

20.    Arise, O Lord, may the wicked son of man not grow strong, may the Gentiles be judged in your presence.

21.    Put, O Lord, fear on them; let the peoples know that they are a son of man forever.


Psalm 10

1.       Why, O Lord, will you stand afar off, hide yourself in the dwelling of the holy ones in the times of distress?

2.       In brutality[36] the wicked man will pursue the poor man; they will be caught in the scheme[37] that they plotted to carry out.

3.       For the wicked man is praised for the craving of his soul; he who blesses the violent man abhors the word of the Lord.

4.       The wicked man in the grossness of his spirit will not seek God, and he will say in his heart that his thoughts are not manifest in the presence of the Lord.

5.       His ways prosper at all times; your judgments are far from his sight; he will rebuke all his oppressors.

6.       He will say in his heart, I will not be shaken from doing evil for all generations.

7.       His mouth is curses, full of guile and deceit; under his tongue is misery and falsehood.

8.       He will sit in the hiding places of the courtyards; in secret places he will kill the innocent; he will hide his eyes against the poor.

9.       He will lie in wait in secret places like a lion in his covert; he will lie in wait to seize the poor man; he will seize the poor man when he is drawn into his trap.

10.    The poor man will be crushed, and sink down, and he will fall into the power of his hiding places.

11.    He will say in his heart, God has forgotten, he has hidden his face, he does not see forever.

12.    Arise, O Lord,[38] fulfill the oath of your hand, do not forget the humble.

13.    Why has the wicked man abhorred God? He will say[39] in his heart, It will not be sought after.[40]

14.    It is manifest in your presence, because you will inflict misery and wrath upon the wicked man; look carefully to pay a good reward to the righteous by your hand; the poor will place their hope on you; you have been a helper to the orphan.

15.    Break the arm of the wicked; and let the evil seek their wickedness, [and] not find it.

16.    The Lord is king forever and ever; the Gentiles have perished[41] from his land.

17.    The desire of the humble is heard in your presence, O Lord; strengthen their heart, incline your ear.[42]

18.    To judge the orphan and poor man; may the sons of men not again be shattered before the wicked of the earth.


Psalm 11

1.       A hymn of David. In the word of the Lord I have hoped; how do you say to my soul, wander to the mountain[43] like a bird?

2.       For behold, the wicked bend the bow, fixing their arrows on the string to shoot in darkness at the firm[44] of heart.

3.       For if the foundations are shattered, why did the virtuous do good?[45]

4.       The Lord is in his holy temple; Gods[46] throne is in the highest heavens; his eyes see, his eyelids examine, the sons of men.

5.       God[47] examines the righteous, but his soul hates the wicked and those who love rapacity.

6.       He will bring down rains of retribution on the wicked, coals of fire and brimstone; a violent storm-wind is the portion of their cup.

7.       For the Lord is righteous, he loves righteousness,[48] the honest man will look upon his countenance.


Psalm 12

1.       For praise, on the lyre of eight strings. A hymn of David.

2.       Redeem, O Lord, for the good[49] are annihilated; for the faithful have ceased from the sons of men.

3.       They speak lies, each to his fellow, lips are flattering; in their heart they deceive, and with a lying heart they speak.

4.       The Lord will destroy from the world all flattering lips, the tongue that speaks arrogance.

5.       Those who deny the essence, who say, By our tongue we shall prevail, our lips are with us, who is our master?

6.       Because of the oppression of the poor, because of the cry of the needy, now I will arise,[50] says the Lord; I will give redemption to my people, but against the wicked I will give testimony of evil.

7.       The words of the Lord are pure words, silver[51] purified in the furnace on the ground, refined seven times.

8.       You, O Lord, will keep the righteous; you will protect them[52] from this evil generation forever.

9.       All around the wicked walk, like a leech that sucks the blood of the sons of men.


Psalm 13

1.       For praise, a hymn of David.

2.       How long, O Lord, will you neglect me forever? How long will you hide the splendor of your face from me?

3.       How long will I put warnings in my soul, suffering in my heart daily? How long will my enemy vaunt himself over me?

4.       Pay heed and receive my prayer, O Lord my God; illumine my eyes by your Torah, lest I sin and sleep with those who deserve death.

5.       Lest the evil impulse[53] should say, I have taken control of him, [lest] my oppressors rejoice because I stray[54] from your paths.

6.       But I have placed my trust in your goodness, my heart will rejoice in your redemption; I will give praise in the Lords presence because he rewards me with good things.


Psalm 14

1.       For praise; in the spirit of prophecy through David. The fool[55] said in his heart, There is no rule of God on the earth. They corrupted their deeds, they despised goodness and found iniquity. There is none who does good.

2.       The Lord looked down from heaven on the sons of men[56] to see if there was any wise man seeking instruction from the presence of the Lord.

3.       All alike have turned backward, they have become lax; there is none who does good, there is not even one.

4.       Do they not know, all doers of falsehood? Those among my people who dine have dined on bread [and] not blessed the name of the Lord.

5.       There they became afraid[57] because the word of the Lord is in the generation of the righteous.

6.       You will despise the counsel of the poor man,[58] because he has placed his hope in the Lord.

7.       Who will produce from Zion the redemption of Israel? When the Lord brings back the exile of his people, Jacob will rejoice, Israel will be glad.


Psalm 15

1.       A hymn of David. O Lord, who is worthy to dwell in your tabernacle, who is worthy[59] to abide on the mountain of your sanctuary?

2.       One who walks in integrity, and does righteous deeds, and speaks truth in his heart.

3.       He does not slander with his tongue, he causes no harm to his fellow, and he bears no shame[60] against his neighbor.

4.       Who despises the contemptible to his face, but honors those who fear the Lord; who will swear to do harm to himself and does not change.[61]

5.       He has not given his money at interest; he has not accepted a bribe against the innocent; one who does these things will never be moved.[62]


Psalm 16

1.       An honest inscription of David. Protect me, O God, because I have hoped[63] in your word.

2.       You have spoken you, my soul in the presence of the Lord. You are my God, truly my goodness is not present without you.

3.       To the holy ones that are in the in the land they have declared the might of my power from the beginning; and as for those proud of their good deeds, my good will is for them.

4.       But the wicked multiply their idols; afterwards they hurry to make their sacrifices. I will not receive favorably their libations or the blood of their sacrifices, nor will I mention their name with my lips.

5.       The Lord is the portion of my cup and my share; you will support[64] my lot.

6.       The lots have fallen pleasantly for me; indeed, a beautiful inheritance is mine.

7.       I will bless the Lord, who has counseled me; even at night my mind[65] disciplines me.

8.       I have placed the Lord[66] before me always, for his presence rests on me;[67] I shall not be shaken.

9.       Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoices; besides, my flesh shall dwell in security.

10.    For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol, you will not hand over your innocent one to see corruption.[68]

11.    You will tell me the way of life; abundance of joy is in the presence of your face; pleasant things are at your right hand forever.


Psalm 17

1.       A prayer of David. Accept, O Lord, my entreaty;[69] in righteousness hear my praise; you will incline your ear to my prayer, since my lips are without guile.

2.       From your presence my judgment shall come forth; your eyes will behold honesty.

3.       You have tested my heart; you have visited me at night; you have purified[70] me [and] not found corruption. [If] I thought of evil, it has not passed my mouth.

4.       Truly you have rebuked the deeds of the sons of men by the word of your lips; I have kept [myself from] the ways of audacity.

5.       Support my steps in your path, lest my feet be shaken.

6.       I have called you because you will receive my prayer, O God; incline your ear, receive my prayer.[71]

7.       Display your goodness,[72] O redeemer of those who hope;[73] from those who rise up against them by your right hand.

8.       Guard me like the circle[74] that is in the middle of the eye; in the shadow of your presence you will hide me.

9.       From the presence of the wicked, those who harm me; my enemies, in the desire of their soul, surround me.

10.    Their wealth has increased, their fat covers [them], their mouth has spoken arrogantly.

11.    Our steps now have surrounded us; their eyes are fixed to extend throughout the land.

12.    He resembles a lion who yearns to tear, or a jungle-cat that dwells in secret places.

13.    Arise, O Lord,[75] forestall him, strike him down; deliver my soul from the wicked man who deserves death by your sword.

14.    And the righteous who hand over their souls on your account, O Lord, to death[76] in the land, their portion is in eternal life, and their bellies will be filled with your good store; children will be satisfied, and they will leave their surplus[77] to their children.

15.    I in truth will see your countenance, I will be satisfied at the time that I awake, from the glory of your face.


Psalm 18

1.       For praise. About the miracles that occurred to the servant of the Lord, David, who sang in prophecy in the presence of the Lord the words of this song about all the days that the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the sword of Saul.

2.       And he said: I will love you, O Lord, my strength.

3.       O Lord, my strength and my security and the one who delivers me; the God who has chosen me has brought me near to fear him;[78] my shield, from whose presence is given me strength and redemption over my enemies; my security.

4.       David said in praise: I pray in the Lords presence, and from my enemies he redeems me.

5.       Distress has surrounded me, like a woman who sits on the birthstool and has no strength to give birth and so is in danger of death; a band of abusive men has terrified me.

6.       Armies of sinners have surrounded me; those armed with deadly weapons have confronted me.

7.       When I am in distress, I pray in the presence of the Lord; and in the presence of my God I make supplication; and he accepts my prayer from his temple,[79] and my petition in his presence is received by his ears, and is granted.

8.       The earth trembled and shook and the foundations of the mountains tottered, and split, for he was angry with it.

9.       The arrogance of Pharaoh[80] went up like smoke;[81] then he sent his anger like a burning fire that consumes[82] before him; his rebuke burns at his utterance like coals of fire.

10.    And he bent down the heavens, and his glory was manifested, a dark cloud a path before him.

11.    So he was manifested in his strength over swift cherubs; and he proceeded in might on the wings of the storm-wind.

12.    And he made his presence dwell in the mist, and surrounded himself with the clouds of his glory as a covering; and he made favorable rains to fall on his people, and mighty waters from the massed clouds of darkness on the wicked from the eternal heights.

13.    From the splendor of his glory the clouds of heaven passed by in rebuke like the coals of fire and burning hail from his word.

14.    And the Lord gave a shout from heaven, and the Most High raised up his utterance; he cast hail and coals of fire.

15.    And he sent his word like arrows, and scattered them; [he sent] many lightning bolts, and confounded them.

16.    And the depths of the sea[83] became visible, and the pillars of the world were uncovered at the rebuke of the Lord,78 from the utterance of your mighty wrath.

17.    He sent his prophets, [he who is] a mighty king who reigns in strength;[84] he took me [and] delivered me from many Gentiles.

18.    He delivered me from my enemies, for they are strong; from my foes, for they prevailed against me.

19.    They confronted me in the day of my wandering; but the word of the Lord was my support.

20.    And he brought me out to a broad place, he delivered me because he was pleased with me.[85]

21.    The Lord will requite me[86] according to my merit; according to the cleanness of my hands he will answer me.

22.    For I have kept the proper ways in the Lords presence; and I have not walked in evil before the Lord.[87]

23.    For all his judgments are revealed in my sight, to do them; and his covenants I will not remove[88] from me.

24.    And I was[89] blameless in fear of him; and I kept my soul from sins.

25.    And the Lord rewarded me according to my merit; according to the cleanness of my hands in the presence of his word.

26.    With Abraham, who was found pious in your presence, you showed much mercy; with his seed, Isaac, who was complete in fear of you, you completed your favorable word.[90]

27.    With Jacob, who was pure[91] in your presence, you chose his sons from all the Gentiles, and separated his seed from all that is unfit; but with Pharaoh and his seed, and the Egyptians who thought evil thoughts against your people,[92] you confounded them in their thoughts.

28.    Because you are going to redeem the people, the house of Israel, who are esteemed[93] among the peoples in exile; and by your word you will abase the mighty nations who prevail over them.

29.    For you will light the lamp of Israel that was extinguished in the exile, for you are the lord of the light of Israel. The Lord my God will bring me out of darkness into light;[94] he will show me his eternal consolation which is to come to the righteous.

30.    For by your word I will pass through armies; and by the word of my God I will subdue mighty citadels.

31.    God [is he] whose ways are true; the Torah of the Lord is pure; he is a shield to all who trust in him.[95]

32.    For because of the miracle and deliverance that you will perform for your Messiah, and for the remnants of your people who will remain, all the Gentiles, nations, and tongues will confess and say, There is no God but the Lord, for there is none besides you; and your people[96] will say, There is none mighty except our God.

33.    God, who girds on me a belt in strength, and makes blameless my way.

34.    Who makes my feet[97] like hinds; and he will sustain me in my stronghold.

35.    Who teaches my hands to do battle, and who makes my arms as strong as a bronze bow.

36.    And you have given me strength and redemption; and your right hand will help me; and by your word you have multiplied me.

37.    You have broadened[98] my steps in my place, and my knee has not buckled.

38.    I will pursue my enemies; [now] have I destroyed them, and I did not return until I finished them off.[99]

39.    I will destroy them,[100] and they are unable to rise; and the slain have fallen under the soles of my feet.

40.    And you have girded me with strength as a belt to do battle; you have defeated beneath me the Gentiles who rise up to do me harm.

41.    And my foes you have broken in my presence; you have made them turn tail; [thus] my enemies I will destroy.

42.    They seek help, but they have no redeemer; they pray in the presence of the Lord, but he does not accept their prayer.

43.    I have crushed[101] them like clods of earth before the storm-wind; and like the mud of the streets I have trodden them.

44.    You will deliver me from the discords of the Gentiles; you will keep me[102] by my destiny a benefactor at the head of the Gentiles; a people that I did not know shall worship me.

45.    At the hearing of the ear, they will obey me; the sons of the peoples[103] will desert in my presence.

46.    The sons of the peoples103 above will perish, and will go into exile from their palaces.

47.    The Lord lives, and blessed is the mighty one; for from his presence strength and redemption are given to me; and exalted is God, the strength of my redemption.

48.    It is God who works retribution for me, and defeats beneath me the Gentiles who arise to do me harm.

49.    He delivers[104] me from my foes; indeed against those who arise to do me harm you will make me prevail; you will deliver me from Gog and the armies of rapacious Gentiles with him.

50.    Because of this, I will give praise in your presence among the Gentiles, O Lord; and I will sing praises to your name.

51.    He works abundant redemption with his king, and shows favor to his Anointed, to David and his seed forever.


Psalm 19

1.       For praise; a psalm of David.

2.       Those who behold the heavens tell of the glory of the Lord; those who gaze at the sky recount the works of his hands.

3.       Day to day tells more of the word; but night to night tells less knowledge.

4.       There is no utterance of complaint, and there are no words of confusion, for their voice is not heard.

5.       The line of their conversation reaches through the whole earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them [the heavens] he placed a splendid dwelling for the sun.

6.       And he, in the morning, when he comes forth, will come forth like a groom who comes out of his canopy, and in splendor will rejoice like a warrior to run the course.[105]

7.       His rising is at the ends of the earth, and his might reaches to all their edges; and there is none who can hide from his heat.

8.       The Torah of the Lord is perfect, restoring the soul; the testimony of the Lord is reliable, making wise the fool.

9.       The commands of the Lord are upright, gladdening the heart; the command of the Lord is bright, enlightening the eyes.

10.    The fear of the Lord is pure, lasting forever; the judgments of the Lord are faithfulness; they are altogether just.

11.    More desirable than gold or than much fine gold; and more pleasant than honey or the sweet honeycombs.

12.    Truly your servant has been careful for them, to observe them; because of this, he was made ruler of Israel.

13.    Who knows unwitting sins? And from secret faults make me innocent.

14.    Truly from the arrogant deliver your servant, that they may not rule over me; then I will be without blemish, and I will be innocent of great sin.

15.    Let the utterances of my mouth and the thought of my mind be acceptable in your presence, O Lord, my strength and my redeemer.


Psalm 20

1.       For praise; a psalm of David.

2.       May the Lord receive your prayer in the day of trouble, may the name of the God of Jacob lift you up.[106]

3.       May he send your help from his sanctuary, and from Zion give you aid.

4.       May he remember all your offerings, and may your whole-offerings drip with fat forever.

5.       May he give you according to your desires, and may he fulfill all your counsel.

6.       Your people[107] will say, Let us give praise for your redemption, and in the name of our God we will be mustered; may the Lord fulfill all your requests.

7.       Now I know that the Lord has redeemed his anointed; he has accepted his prayer from his holy dwelling in the heavens; in might is the redemption of his right hand.

8.       Some by chariots, and some by horses, but we will swear by the name of the Lord our God.

9.       They have stooped and fallen, but we have remained upright and become strong.[108]

10.    O Lord, redeem us, mighty king, accept our prayer in the day we call out.


Psalm 21

1.       For praise; a psalm of David.

2.       O Lord, in your strength the King Messiah will rejoice,[109] and how greatly will he exult in your redemption!

3.       You have given him the desire of his soul; and you have not withheld the expression of his lips forever.

4.       For you will make good blessings go before him; you will place on his head a crown of refined gold.

5.       Eternal life he asked of you; you gave him length of days forever and ever.

6.       Great is his glory in your redemption; praise and splendor you will place on him.

7.       Because you will give him blessings forever; you will gladden him with the gladness that is from your presence.

8.       Because the King Messiah hopes in the Lord;[110] and through the favor of the Most High he is not shaken.

9.       The blow of your hand will reach all your foes; the vengeance of your right hand will find all your enemies.

10.    You will make them like a fiery furnace[111] at the time of your anger, O Lord; in his anger he will swallow them up and the inferno of Gehenna will consume them.[112]

11.    You will make their children perish from the earth, and their progeny from the sons of men.

12.    Because they plotted evil against you, they thought evil thoughts, but they could not prevail against you.

13.    Because for your people you made them one porter in the ropes of your tabernacle;[113] you will prepare their way before them.[114]

14.    Stand up, O Lord, in your might; let us sing praise and dance[115] in your strength.


Psalm 22

1.       For praise; concerning the strength of the regular morning sacrifice; a psalm of David.

2.       My God, my God, why have you left me far from my redemption? are the words of my outcry.

3.       O God, I call by day and you will not accept my prayer; and by night I have no quiet

4.       But you are holy, who make the world rest on the psalms of Israel.[116]

5.       Our fathers hoped in you;[117] they hoped in your word, and you saved them.

6.       In your presence they prayed and were saved; and on you[118] they relied, and were not disappointed.

7.       But I am a feeble worm, not a rational man; the reproach of the sons of men, and the butt of the Gentiles.

8.       All who see me will gloat over[119] me, attacking[120] with their lips; they will shake[121] their heads.

9.       Let him give praise[122] in the presence of the Lord; and he has delivered him, he saved him[123] because he favored him.

10.    Because you took me out of the womb; you gave me hope[124] on my mothers breasts.

11.    By your aid[125] I was pulled forth from [her] bowels; from my mothers womb you are my God.

12.    Be not far from me, for trouble is near, for there is no redeemer.[126]

13.    The Gentiles have surrounded me, who are like many[127] bulls; the princes of Mathnan[128] have hemmed me in.

14.    They open their mouths at me like a roaring and ravaging lion.

15.    Like water I am poured out; all my bones are crushed; my heart is melting like wax[129] within my bowels.

16.    My strength[130] has dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue is stuck to my palate; and you have brought me to the grave.

17.    Because the wicked[131] have surrounded me, who are like many dogs; a gathering of evildoers has hemmed me in, biting my hands and feet like a lion.

18.    I will tell of all the wounds of my bones;[132] those who see me despise me.

19.    They divide my clothing for themselves; and for my cloak they will cast lots.

20.    You, O Lord, do not be far off; O my strength,[133] hurry to my aid.

21.    Save my soul from those who slay with the sword; from the power of the dog[134] [save] the breath of my body.

22.    Redeem me from the mouth of the lion;[135] and from kings who are strong and tall[136] as a bull you have received my prayer.

23.    I will tell of the might of your name to my brothers; in the midst of the assembly I will praise you.

24.    O you who fear the Lord, sing praise in his presence; all the seed of Jacob, give him glory; and be afraid of him, all you seed of Israel.

25.    For he does not despise or scorn the prayer of the poor; and he has not removed his presence from their midst; and when they pray in his presence, he accepts [their prayer].

26.    My psalm in the assembly of many people is from you; I will fulfill my vows before those who fear him.

27.    The humble will eat and be satisfied; those who seek the Lord will sing praise in his presence; the spirit of prophecy will dwell in the thoughts of your hearts forever.

28.    All the ends of the earth will remember his offerings[137] and will repent in the presence of the Lord; and all the families of the Gentiles will bow down before you.

29.    For kingship is from the presence of the Lord, and he rules over the Gentiles.

30.    All who are fat on earth have eaten and bowed down; all who descend to the grave prostrate themselves before him; but the soul of the wicked shall not live.

31.    The seed of Abraham will worship in his presence; and they will tell the mighty greatness of the Lord to a later generation.

32.    Their children will return[138] and recount his generosity; to his people yet to be born [they will recount] the wonders he performed.



Psalm 23

1.       A psalm of David. It is the Lord who fed his people in the wilderness; they did not lack anything.

2.       In a place of thirst he will settle me in pleasant grass; he led me to the waters of rest.

3.       He will restore my soul with manna;[139] he led me in the paths of righteousness[140] for the sake of his name.[141]

4.       Indeed, when I go into exile by the plain of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; for your word is my help, your straight staff and your Torah, they will comfort me.

5.       You have set before me a high table of manna in front of my oppressors; you have fattened my body with stuffed fowl, and with anointing oil [you have fattened] the heads of my priests; my goblet is wide.

6.       Indeed grace and favor will follow me all the days of my life, while I sit in the sanctuary of the Lord for length of days.


Psalm 24

1.       Of David. A Psalm. Behold,[142] the earth and its creatures[143] are the Lords, the world and those who dwell in it.

2.       For he set a foundation on the seas[144] and fixed it firmly on the rivers.

3.       Who will ascend[145] the mount of the Lords sanctuary? And who will stand in his holy place?

4.       One with clean hands and a pure mind, who has not sworn to a lie[146] to make himself guilty, and who has not made an oath in guile.

5.       He will receive blessings from the presence of the Lord, and generosity from God his redemption.

6.       This is the generation that seeks him, that looks for his countenance, O Jacob, forever!

7.       Lift up, O sanctuary gates, your heads; and stand erect, O eternal entrances, that the glorious king may enter.

8.       Who is this glorious king? The Lord, strong and mighty, the Lord, a mighty ruler and one who wages battle.

9.       Lift up your heads, O gates of the Garden of Eden; and stand erect, O eternal entrances, and the glorious king will enter.

10.    Who is this glorious king? The Lord Sabaoth, he is the glorious king forever.


Psalm 25

1.       Of David. Before you, O Lord, I lift up my soul in prayer.

2.       O my God, in you[147] I have put my trust; I will not be disappointed; my foes will not rejoice over me.

3.       Truly, all who look to you[148] will not be disappointed; robbers and rogues will be disappointed.

4.       Show me your ways, O Lord; teach me your paths.

5.       Lead me by your merit[149] and teach me, for you are God, my redemption; in you I have placed my hope every day.

6.       Remember your mercies, O Lord, and your favors, for they are eternal.

7.       The sins of my youth and my transgressions do not remember; according to your goodness remember me, because of your grace, O Lord.

8.       Good and upright is the Lord; therefore he teaches sinners on the path.

9.       He guides the humble in judgment; and teaches the humble his way.

10.    All the ways of the Lord are kindness and truth to those who keep his covenant and his testimony.

11.    Because of your name, O Lord, you will forgive my sin, for it is great.

12.    Who is the man who is reverent in the presence of the Lord? He will teach him the way he has chosen.

13.    His soul will lodge in kindness,[150] and his children will inherit the earth.

14.    The mystery of the Lord is revealed to those who fear him; and his covenant is to instruct them.

15.    My eyes look always before the Lord, for he will bring my feet out of the trap.

16.    Look towards me and have mercy on me, for I am alone and afflicted.

17.    The troubles of my heart have spread;[151] bring me out of my anguish.

18.    See my pain and vexation, and forgive all my sins.

19.    See my foes, for they have become many; and the enmity that the rapacious have towards me.

20.    Keep my soul and save me; I would not be disappointed because I hoped in you.[152]

21.    Innocence and honesty will guard me, for I hoped in your word.

22.    Redeem Israel, O Lord,[153] from all his troubles.


Psalm 26

1.       Of David. Judge me, O Lord, for I have walked in my innocence; and in the Lord I have hoped [and] trusted;[154] I shall not be shaken.

2.       Try me, O Lord, and prove me; purify my inmost thoughts.[155]

3.       Because your goodness is before my eyes, and I have walked in your truth.

4.       I have not reclined [to dine] with lying men; and I will not enter with those who hide themselves to do evil.

5.       I hate the gathering of evildoers, and with the wicked I will not recline [to dine].

6.       I will sanctify my hands by my merit, and I have gone around[156] your altar, O Lord.

7.       To make heard the sound of praise, and to tell of all your wonders.

8.       O Lord, I love the dwelling of your sanctuary, and the place of your glorious tabernacle.[157]

9.       My soul will not gather with the sinners, nor my life with the men who shed blood.

10.    In whose hands is the purpose of sinning; their right hands are full of bribes.

11.    But I will go about in my innocence; redeem me and have mercy on me.

12.    My foot stands upright; in the gathering of the righteous I will bless the Lord.


Psalm 27

1.       Of David. The Lord[158] is my light and my redemption; whom shall I fear? The Lord is the strength of my life; whom shall I fear?[159]

2.       Whenever evildoers come near to me to destroy my flesh, my oppressors and my foes they have stumbled and fallen.

3.       If an army of the wicked encamps against me, my heart will not fear; if battle rises against me, in this I place my hope.[160]

4.       One thing I have sought from the presence of the Lord; that thing I will continue to seek: that I should dwell in the sanctuary of the Lord all the days of my life, to see the pleasantness of the Lord and to inquire in his temple.

5.       For he will hide me in his shadow in the day of evil, he will conceal me in the hiding place of his tabernacle, in a mighty fortress he will raise me up.

6.       And now my head will be lifted up over my enemies round about;[161] and I will slaughter acceptable sacrifices in his tabernacle;[162] I will sing praise and be glad in the presence of the Lord.

7.       Receive, O Lord, my prayer when I call,[163] and have mercy on me and pity me.

8.       To you my heart said, Seek my face; your countenance, O Lord, I will seek.

9.       Do not remove your presence from me; do not turn in anger to your servant; you have been my help; do not exile me and do not abandon me, O God my redemption.

10.    Because my father (abba) and my mother have abandoned me, but the Lord[164] will gather me in.

11.    Teach me, O Lord, your ways, and lead me by a straight path because of my psalm.[165]

12.    Do not hand me over to the will of my oppressors, for the false witnesses have risen against me, and those who speak rapacity.

13.    Had I not believed I would look on the goodness of the Lord in the land of eternal life!

14.    Hope in the Lord; strengthen and fortify your heart; and hope in the Lord.


Psalm 28

1.       Of David. To you, O Lord, I cry; O my strength, do not be silent to me, lest, when you are silent, I become like those who descend to the pit.

2.       Accept the voice of my petition when I pray to you, whenever I spread my hands in prayer before your holy temple.

3.       Do not drag me away with the wicked or with those who do wrong; who speak peace with their fellows, while evil is in their hearts.

4.       Give[166] to them[167] according to their deeds, and according to their evil deeds;[168] according to the works of their hands, repay[169] them; turn upon them their retribution.

5.       Because they do not understand the Torah of the Lord or the works of his hands; he will tear them down and not rebuild them.

6.       Blessed is the Lord[170] because he has accepted[171] the voice of my prayer.

7.       The Lord is my strength and shield; on him my heart has set its hope;[172] and you have aided me,[173] and my heart exults; I will give thanks in his presence by my psalm.

8.       The Lord is their strength and might; he is the redemption of his anointed.

9.       Redeem your people and bless your inheritance; feed them and support them forever.


Psalm 29

1.       A psalm of David. Give praise in the presence of the Lord, O bands of angels;[174] give glory and might in the Lords presence.

2.       Give the glory of his name in the presence of the Lord; bow down before the Lord in the splendor of holiness.

3.       The voice of the Lord is heard above the waters; in his glorious might[175] the Lord called out over many waters.

4.       The voice of the Lord is heard in strength; the voice of the Lord is heard in splendor.

5.       The voice of the Lord shatters cedars; the word of the Lord has shattered the cedars of Lebanon.

6.       And he made them jump like a calf Lebanon, and the Mount of Noisome Fruit, like the young of oxen.

7.       The voice of the Lord splits flames of fire.

8.       The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the word of the Lord shakes the wilderness[176] of Rekem.

9.       The voice of the Lord impregnates the hinds, and makes the beasts of the forest give birth;[177] and in his sanctuary[178] above, all his servants say, Glory, in his presence.

10.    In the generation of the Flood, the Lord sat on his throne of judgment to take vengeance on them; and the Lord sat on the throne of mercy and saved Noah; and he reigns over his children forever and ever.

11.    The Lord gave the Torah to his people; the Lord will bless his people in peace.


Psalm 30

1.       A praise song for the dedication of the sanctuary. Of David.

2.       I will praise[179] you, O Lord, for you made me stand erect, and did not let my enemies rejoice over me.

3.       O Lord my God, I prayed in your presence and you healed me.

4.       O Lord, you raised my soul out of Sheol; you preserved me from going down to the pit.[180]

5.       Sing praise in the Lords presence, you his devotees; and give thanks at the invocation of his holy one.

6.       For his anger is but a moment; eternal life is his good pleasure. In the evening one goes to bed in tears, but in the morning one rises in praise.

7.       And I said when I dwelt in trust,[181] I will never be shaken.

8.       O Lord, by your will you prepared the mighty mountains; you removed your presence, I became afraid.

9.       In your presence, O Lord, I will cry out;[182] and to you, O my God, I will pray.

10.    <And I said,>[183] What profit is there in my blood, when I descend to the grave? Can those who descend to[184] the dust praise you?[185] Will they tell of your faithfulness?[186]

11.    Accept, O Lord, my prayer, and have mercy on me; O Lord, be my helper.

12.    You turned my lament into my celebration; you loosened my sackcloth and girded me with joy.

13.    Because the nobles of the world will give you praise and not be silent, O Lord my God, I [too] will give you praise.[187]


Psalm 31

1.       For praise; a psalm of David.

2.       In your word, O Lord, I have placed my hope; I will never be disappointed; by your generosity save me.

3.       Incline your ear to me, in haste save me. Be for me a strong fortress,[188] a fortified stronghold to redeem me.

4.       For you are my strength and trust; and for the sake of your name, guide me and sustain me.

5.       Take me out of this net that they spread for me,[189] for you are my strength.

6.       Into your hand I will place[190] my spirit; you have redeemed me, O Lord, true God.

7.       I hate those who observe practices that are like vanity and lies; but I have relied on the Lord.[191]

8.       I will rejoice and be glad in your kindness, for you have seen my affliction, you know the troubles of my soul.

9.       And you have not handed me over to the hand of my enemy; you have made my feet stand in a broad place.

10.    Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am in distress. My eye is wasted[192] from agitation; my soul and my belly are destroyed.

11.    For my life[193] is ended in misery, and my years in sighing; my strength has failed because of my sin, and my limbs are used up.

12.    I have become a more shameful[194] thing than all my oppressors, and more so to my neighbors a fearful thing to those who know me, those who see me in the street flee from my presence.

13.    I am forgotten like a dead man from the mind;[195] I have become like a broken vessel of the potter.

14.    Because I have heard an evil report which many peoples say about me; terror is all around when they gather together against me; they have planned to take my soul.

15.    But I have put my trust in you,[196] O Lord; I said, You are my God.

16.    In your hand are the times of my redemption; save me from the hand of my enemies and persecutors.

17.    Shine your countenance on your servant; redeem me by your goodness.

18.    O Lord, I will not be disappointed, for I have called upon you; let the wicked be disappointed, let them be silent and descend to Sheol.[197]

19.    Let the lips of[198] falsehood be stopped up, [the lips] that speak slander against the righteous in pride and contempt.

20.    How great is your goodness that you have hidden for those that fear you; you have acted for those who hope in you, to pay them a good reward in front of the sons of men.

21.    You will hide them in a hiding place in the time of your anger from troops of warriors; you will conceal them as in a shelter from the strife of tongues.

22.    Blessed be the Lord, for he has exhibited his kindness to me in the walled city.

23.    And I thought[199] when I sought to flee, I have been eliminated from the presence of your glory; [but] in truth you heard the sound of my prayer when I made supplication to you.

24.    Love the Lord, all his devotees; the Lord keeps the faithful from harm, and pays back the haughty who act proudly.

25.    Be strong, and let your mind[200] be sturdy, all you who have confidence in the word of the Lord.


Psalm 32

1.       Of David. Good counsel. David said, How blessed is the one[201] whose impieties they forgive, whose sins they cover over.

2.       How happy was Moses, son of Amram,[202] to whom the Lord did not reckon his sins, because there was no guile in his spirit.

3.       Because I have been silent from the words of Torah, my bones waste away while I groan all day.

4.       Because day and night your punishment is severe upon me, my moisture is turned to, as it were, the hot wind of summer forever.

5.       My sin I will tell you and my iniquity I have not covered. I said, I will confess my rebellions in the presence of the Lord; and you forgave the iniquity of my sin forever.

6.       Because of this let every pious man pray in your presence[203] at the time of his favor; indeed, at the time when many Gentiles come like waters, to him they will not come near to do harm.

7.       You are the Lord; hide me, from the oppressor[204] guard me; the joy of salvation will surround me forever.

8.       I will enlighten you and teach you; in this way you shall go; I will advise you and put my eye upon you for good.

9.       Do not be like a horse or mule who have no intelligence; both muzzle and halter are its trappings to be kept silent; let it not come near you.

10.    Many are the pains of the wicked; but favor will surround the one who trusts in the Lord.

11.    Rejoice in the word of the Lord, and be glad, O righteous; and give praise, all you with upright hearts.[205]


Psalm 33

1.       Give praise, O righteous, in the presence of the Lord; praise is seemly for the upright.

2.       Give thanks in the presence of the Lord with the lyre; with the harp of ten strings give him praise.

3.       Give praise in the presence of the Lord with a new song; praise[206] well with a shout.

4.       For the word of the Lord is right, and all his deeds are reliable.

5.       He loves righteousness and justice; the goodness of the Lord fills the earth.

6.       By the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and by the breath of his mouth, all their armies.

7.       Who gathers as in a bottle the waters of the sea; he puts them in the treasuries of the deeps.

8.       In the presence of the Lord all who dwell on the earth will be afraid;[207] all the inhabitants of the world will tremble because of him.

9.       Because he says it, and it is; he commanded, and it took place.

10.    The Lord shattered the counsel of the Gentiles, frustrated the plans of the nations.

11.    The counsel of the Lord stands forever, the thoughts of his heart for all generations.

12.    Happy is the man[208] whose god is the Lord, the people that he chose[209] for his inheritance.

13.    From heaven the Lord looked, he saw all the sons of men.

14.    From the residence of his dwelling he looked out at all the inhabitants of the earth.

15.    Who created them, forming their heart together,[210] and discerning all their deeds.

16.    The king is not redeemed by the abundance of his forces; the warrior is not saved by the abundance of his strength.

17.    The horse is deceitful for redemption; and by the abundance of its strength one is not saved.

18.    Behold, the eye of the Lord sees those who fear him, those who hope for his kindness.

19.    To save their soul from death, and to keep them alive in famine.

20.    Our soul looks for the redemption of the Lord; he is our help and shield.

21.    For our heart will rejoice in his word, because in his holy name we have placed our trust.

22.    May your goodness be upon us, O Lord, as we have put our hopes in you.


Psalm 34

1.       Of David, when he disguised his intelligence before Abimelech, who dismissed him, and he left.

2.       I will bless the Lord at all times, his praise is always in my mouth.

3.       My soul makes her boast in the word of the Lord; the humble will hear and rejoice.

4.       Ascribe greatness in the presence of the Lord with me, and we will exalt his name together.

5.       I sought instruction from the presence of the Lord and he answered me; and from all my fears he delivered me.

6.       They looked toward him and received light; and their faces were not dismayed.

7.       This poor one prayed; in the presence of the Lord it was heard, and he redeemed him from all his troubles.

8.       The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear him, and he saved them.

9.       Recognize and see that the Lord is good; happy the man who has placed his trust in his word.

10.    Have fear in the presence of the Lord, O you his holy ones; for there is nothing lacking to those who fear him.

11.    The sons of the lion became poor and were hungry; but those who seek the instruction of the Lord lack no good thing.

12.    Come, children, receive [teaching] from me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.

13.    Who is the man who seeks life, loves days in order to see good?

14.    Guard your tongue from evil, and your lips from speaking deceit.

15.    Turn from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue after it.

16.    The eyes of the Lord are toward the righteous; and his ears, to receive their prayer.

17.    The face of the Lord is wrathful against evildoers, to expunge their memory from the earth.

18.    The righteous pray, and it is heard in the presence of the Lord; and from all their trouble he has delivered them.

19.    The Lord is near to the broken-hearted; and the lowly in spirit he will redeem.

20.    Many evils encounter the righteous man; and from all of them the Lord delivers him.

21.    He protects all his limbs; not one of them is broken.

22.    The death of the wicked is bad, and those who hate the righteous man will be condemned.

23.    The Lord redeems the soul of his servants; and none who hope in his word are condemned.


Psalm 35

1.       Of David. Contend, O Lord, with those who contend against me; make war against those who war against me.

2.       Take up a shield and buckler, and arise as my help.

3.       And draw the spear and fasten the scabbard; and be prepared to meet those who pursue me; say to my soul, I am your redeemer.

4.       Let those who seek my life be ashamed and embarrassed; let those who plot my ruin shrink back and be subdued.

5.       Let them be like chaff before the storm-wind, with the angel of the Lord repelling [them].

6.       May their paths be dark and murky, with the angel of the Lord pursuing them.

7.       For without cause they have spread before me a pit; their net they have hidden for my soul without cause.

8.       May a sudden calamity, unsuspected, overtake him; and may his net that he spread catch him; let him suddenly fall in it.

9.       But my soul will rejoice in the word of the Lord; it will be glad in his redemption.

10.    All my limbs will keep saying, O Lord, who is like you? who saves the poor from the one stronger than he, and the poor and wretched from his oppressor.

11.    Rapacious witnesses stand up; those whom I have not known question me.

12.    They repay me evil for good, seeking to bereave my soul.

13.    But I, in the time of their illness, wore sackcloth; I afflicted my soul with fasting; but my prayer will return to my bosom.

14.    As if for my friend or brother, I went about like a mourner; like one who mourns for his mother, I was bowed down in gloom.

15.    But when I was stricken, they rejoiced and even gathered together against me; the wicked, who belittle me with their words, and I knew it not, as if they cut my skin without drawing blood.

16.    With smooth words and haughtiness and mockery, they grind their teeth against me.

17.    O Lord, how long will you watch? Deliver my soul from their calamities, my body from the lions whelps.

18.    I will give thanks in your presence in the great assembly; among a mighty people I will praise you.

19.    Let not my enemies rejoice over me [with] a lie those who hate me without cause, winking with their eyes.

20.    For they do not speak peace; and against the righteous of the earth who have rest in this world they plot devious things.

21.    And they have opened their mouth wide against me [and] said, Joy! Joy! Our eye has seen it!

22.    You have seen, O Lord, do not be silent; O Lord, be not far from me.

23.    Wake and be alert to my cause, O my God; the Lord is the victor in my dispute.

24.    Judge me by your generosity, O Lord my God, and they will not rejoice over me.

25.    Let them not say in their heart, Our soul is glad; lest they say, We have finished him.

26.    Let those who rejoice at my harm be ashamed and subdued together; let those who vaunt themselves over me be clothed with shame and disgrace.

27.    May those who seek my vindication be glad and rejoice and say always, May the glory of the Lord be great, he who desires the peace of his servant.

28.    And my tongue will sing of your generosity, all the day of your praise.


Psalm 36

1.       For praise. Of the servant of the Lord, David.

2.       Rebellion said to the sinner within my heart,[211] There is no fear of the Lord before his eyes.

3.       Because he flatters him with his eyes to find sins, to hate instruction.

4.       The words of his mouth are wickedness and deceit; he has ceased to be wise in doing good.

5.       Wickedness plots on his bed; he will take his stand in a way not good; he will not reject evil.

6.       O Lord, your goodness is in the heaven of heavens, your faithfulness reaches to the skies.

7.       Your righteousness[212] is as high as the great mountains; your judgments are as deep as the great abyss; you will redeem both the sons of men and beasts, O Lord.

8.       How precious is your goodness, O Lord; and the sons of men will dwell securely in the shadow of your presence.

9.       They will drink deeply of the plenteous blessings of your house; and you will let them drink of your pleasant fountain.

10.    For with you are streams of living water; in the splendor[213] of your glory we will see light.[214]

11.    Extend your goodness over those who know you; and your generosity over the upright of heart.

12.    May the foot of the proud not reach me; and may the hands of the wicked not make me wander.

13.    There fell those who commit falsehood; they will be struck down, and will not rise again.


Psalm 37

1.       Of David. Have no desire for malefactors, to be like them; and do not be jealous of those who commit oppression, to join with them.

2.       Because their end will be like plants, quickly will they wither; and like the green grass they will fall away.

3.       Trust in the word of the Lord and do good; dwell in the land and be strong[215] in faith.

4.       And you will delight in the Lord, and he will give you the requests of your heart.

5.       Reveal to the Lord your ways, and trust in his word, and he will act.

6.       And your righteousness will come out like light, and your judgment like noonday.

7.       Be quiet[216] in the presence of the Lord and wait for him; do not desire the wicked man who prospers his way, the man who follows the counsel of sinners.

8.       Wait without anger and forsake wrath; do not long indeed to do evil.

9.       For those who do evil will be destroyed; but those who hope in the word of the Lord they will inherit the land.

10.    And yet a little while, and there is no wicked man; you will look carefully at his place, and he is not.

11.    But the humble will inherit the land; and they will delight in the plenitude of peace.

12.    The wicked man plots harm against the righteous man, and grinds his teeth against him.

13.    The Lord will laugh at him, for he has seen, for the day of his ruin has come.

14.    The wicked have drawn the sword and bent their bows to kill the humble and lowly, to slaughter the upright of way.

15.    Their blade will enter their [own] heart, and their bows will break.

16.    Better in the presence of the Lord is the smallness of the righteous man than the multitude of many wicked men.

17.    For the arms of the wicked will be broken, but the word of the Lord supports the righteous.

18.    The days of the blameless are known in the Lords presence, and their inheritance will last forever.

19.    They will not be ashamed in the time of evil, and in the days of famine they are satisfied.

20.    For the wicked will perish, and the enemies of the Lord are like the glory of young sheep that at first are fattened but finally slaughtered likewise the wicked will perish and be destroyed in the smoke of Gehenna.

21.    The wicked borrows and does not repay; but the righteous is compassionate, and gives.

22.    For those who are blessed by his word will inherit the land; but those who are cursed by death will be destroyed.

23.    In the presence of the Lord the steps of a man are made firm, and he will favor his ways.

24.    For when he falls into sickness, he will not die, because the Lord is the helper at his hand.

25.    I was a boy, but have grown old; and I have not seen the righteous man abandoned or his sons seeking bread because of want.

26.    For all the day he is compassionate and lends; and his seed is for a blessing.

27.    Turn from evil, and practice kindness, and abide for eternal life. Another targum: Turn from doing evil, O righteous man, and do good; because of this you will abide forever.

28.    For the Lord loves justice and will not abandon his pious ones; they are protected forever; but the sons of the wicked will be destroyed.

29.    The righteous will inherit the land, and will dwell on it forever.

30.    The mouth of the righteous murmurs wisdom, and his tongue speaks justice.

31.    The law (nimus) of his God is in his heart; his feet do not stumble.

32.    The wicked man observes the righteous man and seeks to kill him.

33.    The Lord will not abandon him into his hand, and will not find him guilty when he is judged. another targum: When he stands in judgment.

34.    Hope in the word of the Lord, and keep his way, and he will raise you up to inherit the land; you will see the destruction of the wicked.

35.    I have seen the wicked man, strong and mighty, like a native and leafy tree.

36.    And he ceased from the world, and, behold, he is no more; and I sought him but he was not found.

37.    Preserve blamelessness, and behold[217] honesty; for the end of [such] a son of man is peace.

38.    But rebels will be destroyed together; the end of the wicked is destruction.

39.    But the redemption of the righteous is from the presence of the Lord, their strength in the time of trouble.

40.    And the Lord helped them and saved them, he saved them from sinners; and he will redeem them, for they trusted in his word.


Psalm 38

1.       A psalm of David. A handful of incense, a good memorial for Israel.

2.       O Lord, do not rebuke me in your anger, and do not punish me in your wrath.

3.       For your arrows have descended on me, and the blow of your hand rests upon me.

4.       There is no healing in my body because of your anger, no health in my limbs because of my sin.

5.       For my sins have mounted past my head; like a heavy burden, they were too heavy for me.

6.       My wounds stank, they decayed, because of my foolishness.

7.       I am bent over, I am greatly bowed down; all the day I have gone about in gloom.

8.       For my loins are filled with burning,[218] and there is no healing in my body.

9.       I have become faint and I have been humbled greatly; I moaned because of the groaning of my heart.

10.    O Lord, before you is all my desire; and my sighing is not hid[219] from you.

11.    My heart has become hot; my strength has left me, and the light of my eyes even they are not with me.

12.    My friends and companions stood away from the sight of my plague; and my relatives stand far off.

13.    And those who seek my life have made traps; and those who seek my ruin have uttered lies, and they murmur[220] deceit all the day.

14.    But I am like a deaf man, I will not hear, like a mute who does not open his mouth.

15.    And I have become like a man who has never heard, and there is no rebuke in his mouth.

16.    For in your presence, O Lord, have I prayed; you will accept [my prayer], O Lord my God.

17.    For I said, Lest they rejoice over me. When my foot stumbled, they vaunted themselves over me.

18.    For I am prepared for disaster, and my pain is before me always.

19.    For my sin I will relate, I will be troubled by my sin.

20.    But my enemies, alive, have grown strong; those who hate me through deceit are numerous.

21.    And those who repay evil for good oppose me, because I have pursued good.

22.    Do not forsake me, O Lord; my God, do not be far from me.

23.    Hasten to my aid, O Lord, my redemption.


Psalm 39

1.       For praise; concerning the guard of the sanctuary, according to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David.

2.       I said, I will keep my way from sinning by my tongue, I will keep a bridle for my mouth, while there is a wicked man before me.

3.       I was dumb, I was quiet, I kept away from the words of Torah; because of this my pain contorts [me].[221]

4.       My heart grew heated in my body; when I murmur, fire will burn; I spoke with my tongue.

5.       Make known to me the way of my end;[222] and the measure of my days, what they are; I would know when I will cease from the world.

6.       Behold, you have ordained my days to be swift, and my body is as nothing before you. Truly all are considered to be nothing, but all the righteous endure for eternal life.

7.       Truly in the image of the Lord man goes about; truly for nothing they are perplexed; he gathers and does not know why anyone gathers them.[223]

8.       And now, why have I hoped, O Lord? My waiting is for you.

9.       From all my rebellions deliver me; do not put on me the shame of the fool.

10.    I have become mute, and I will not open my mouth, for you have done it.

11.    Remove your plague from me; I am destroyed by the blow of your mighty hand.

12.    You punish a son of man with rebuke for sin; and you have dissolved his body like wool that has been nibbled away; truly every son of man is as nothing forever.

13.    Receive my prayer, O Lord, and hear my supplication,[224] and to my tears do not be silent; for I am like a foreigner with you, an alien like all my fathers.

14.    Leave me alone, and I will depart, ere I go and exist no more.


Psalm 40

1.       For praise. Of David, a psalm.

2.       I truly hoped in the Lord, and he turned to me and received my supplication.

3.       And he brought me up from the pit of turmoil, from the mire of filth; and he set my feet on the rock, he made my steps firm.

4.       And he put in my mouth a new psalm: Let there be praise before the Lord our God, let many see and fear and hope in the word of the Lord.

5.       Happy the man who made the Lord his confidence, and did not look toward the disobedient and those who speak falsehood.

6.       Many are the miracles that you have done, O Lord my God; your wonders and favor[225] towards us are impossible to set out; I will recount and speak to you your praise; they are too great to tell.

7.       You do not want sacrifice and offering; you have scooped out ears for me to hear your redemption; you have not asked for holocaust and sin offering.

8.       Then I said, Behold, I have entered into eternal life, whenever I occupy myself with the scroll of the book of Torah that was written for my sake.

9.       I desire to do your will, O God; and your Torah is contained in my deepest self.[226]

10.    I have proclaimed righteousness in the great assembly; behold, I will not withhold my lips; O Lord my God, you know [this].

11.    I have not concealed your righteousness in my heart, I have uttered your truth and your redemption; I have not kept back your goodness and faithfulness in the great assembly.

12.    Therefore you, O Lord, do not withhold your mercy from me; may your goodness and truth always keep me.

13.    For evils are strong[227] against me, until they are without number; my sins have overtaken me and I cannot see; they are more numerous than the hairs of my head; and my thoughts have left me.

14.    Be pleased, O Lord, to save me; O Lord, hasten to my aid.

15.    Those who seek to destroy my soul will be ashamed and confused together; those who desire my ruin will turn back and be disgraced.

16.    They will become senseless because of their shame those who say to me, We have rejoiced at his ruin, we rejoiced at his misery.

17.    All who seek you will rejoice and be glad in your word; and those who love your redemption will say continually, Let the might of the Lord be magnified.

18.    But I am humble and poor, O Lord; let good be devised for me, you are my help and salvation; O my God, do not delay.


Psalm 41

1.       For praise; a psalm of David.

2.       Happy the man who is wise to show mercy to the humble and poor on the day of evil; the Lord will deliver him.

3.       The Lord will keep him and preserve him and do well to him in the land; and he will not hand him over to the will of his enemies.

4.       The word of the Lord will aid him in his life, and be revealed to him on the bed of his sickness to preserve him; you have reversed wholly his bed in the time of his sickness and rebuke.[228]

5.       I said: O Lord, have mercy on me; heal my soul, for I have sinned in your presence.

6.       My enemies will speak evil about me: When will he die and his name perish?

7.       And if he comes to welcome me, he will speak falsehood; in his mind he will gather iniquity to himself, he will go outside [and] speak.

8.       All my enemies speak together about me in secret, plotting ruin for me.

9.       He will pour out on him the speech of an oppressor,[229] and will say, This one who is sick will not get up again.

10.    Even a man who seeks my welfare, in whom I trusted, feeding him my meal he has cunningly prevailed over me.

11.    But you, O Lord, have mercy on me, and raise me up from illness; and I will pay them back.

12.    By this I know that you have favored me, that my enemy has not prevailed over me to cause harm.

13.    But I, for my blamelessness you have sustained me; and you made me stand in your presence forever.

14.    Blessed be the name of the Lord God of Israel, from this world to the world to come; the righteous will say, Amen and amen.


[1] Be acquitted: stand.

[2] Great day: + of judgment.

[3] Kings: kingdoms.

[4] They say: omit.

[5] Sanctuary: Zion, my holy place.

[6] He said: + to me.

[7] The rulers of: omit.

[8] Wrath: power.

[9] He will accept: Tg lybqy suggests Heb ynn(y.

[10] Strife: myriads.

[11] They will know: Tg w(dyw suggests Heb w(dyw.

[12] Righteous: pious.

[13] Takes no pleasure in: does not desire.

[14] Deeds: doers.

[15] In you: in your word.

[16] Humble: rebuke.

[17] LORD: God.

[18] I will speak: Tg llm) suggests Heb hxy#).

[19] Oppressors: distress.

[20] Heard: accepted.

[21] Petition: supplication.

[22] Minds: lit. kidneys.

[23] Repent and reverence him: lit., return to his fear.

[24] Thank: give praise.

[25] God: Lord.

[26] Passes along: bursts from. (?)

[27] The man: + the warrior.

[28] Look at: trust in

[29] Hope: word.

[30] Neglect: forget.

[31] Enemies: those who hate me.

[32] Praises: miracles.

[33] He executed: through the works of his hands: or he executed on the works of his hands.

[34] Neglected: forgot.

[35] Neglected: forgotten.

[36] Brutality: pride.

[37] Scheme: folly.

[38] O LORD: + our God.

[39] He will say: Tg rmyy suggests Heb rm)y.

[40] It will not be sought after: you will not seek.

[41] Have perished: will perish.

[42] Incline your ear: + to their prayer.

[43] The mountain: your mountain.

[44] Firm: upright.

[45] Virtuous do good: righteous do right.

[46] Gods: the Lords.

[47] God: the word of the Lord.

[48] Righteousness: virtue.

[49] Good: righteous.

[50] I will arise: + in judgment.

[51] Silver: like silver.

[52] You will protect them: Tg Nwnyr+nt suggests Heb Mrct.

[53] Evil impulse: my enemy.

[54] Stray: have strayed.

[55] Fool: stupid man.

[56] Men: Adam.

[57] Became afraid: they worshipped a false god that is not proper to worship.

[58] Poor: + who are humble, who rebuke them.

[59] Worthy: deserves.

[60] Shame: disgrace.

[61] Change: reverse.

[62] Moved: shaken.

[63] Hoped: trusted.

[64] Support: take care of.

[65] Mind: lit., kidneys.

[66] The LORD: the word of the Lord.

[67] On me: at my right hand.

[68] Corruption: place of corruption.

[69] Entreaty: request.

[70] Purified: tested.

[71] Receive my prayer: hear my speech.

[72] Goodness: merits.

[73] Those who hope: + and avenge them.

[74] The circle: the pupil of the circle.

[75] Lord: God.

[76] To death: + and are destroyed.

[77] Surplus: profit.

[78] To fear him: lit., to his fear.

[79] From his temple: from his holy temple in heaven.

[80] Pharaoh: + the wicked.

[81] Like smoke: + before him.

[82] Consumes: reading )yycy#ym.

[83] Sea: following 2 Sam. 22:16.

[84] In strength: + on high.

[85] With me: + said David.

[86] Requite me: repay me.

[87] The LORD: my God.

[88] I will not remove: or, he has not removed.

[89] I was: I will be.

[90] Cp. Vayyiqra Rabba 11,5.

[91] Pure: walked in purity.

[92] People: + Israel.

[93] Esteemed: needy.

[94] Into light: + and shine before me.

[95] Him: his word.

[96] People: + the house of Israel.

[97] Feet: + swift.

[98] Broadened: multiplied.

[99] Now havethem off: and I will overtake them, and not return until I have finished them off. (The first targum assimilates the text to 2 Sam. 22:38; the second reflects the text of the psalm.)

[100] An assimilation to 2 Sam. 22:39.

[101] Crushed: trampled.

[102] You will keep me: you have appointed me.

[103] Peoples: foreign peoples.

[104] Delivers: redeems.

[105] In splendor course: At midday he rejoices like a warrior who comes to run with might on the way to his going down at evening.

[106] Lift you up: strengthen you.

[107] Your people: + the house of Israel.

[108] Strong: + and the word of the Lord was humbled for us.

[109] Rejoice: reign.

[110] Hopes in the LORD: relies on the word of the Lord.

[111] Fiery furnace: an oven that resembles a fiery furnace.

[112] In his anger consume them: like a fire he will burn them and the flames of Gehenna will obliterate them.

[113] You made them tabernacle: translation uncertain.

[114] You will before them: you will set out your Torah before him.

[115] Dance: exult.

[116] Psalms of Israel: or whose eternal throne is on the psalms of Israel.

[117] Hoped in you: relied on your word.

[118] You: your word.

[119] Gloat over: laugh at.

[120] Attacking: despising.

[121] They will shake: and shaking.

[122] Let him give praise: I have given praise.

[123] The Aramaic text has perfects for the imperfects of the MT.

[124] You gave me hope: [you were] my security.

[125] Aid: word.

[126] Redeemer: helper.

[127] Many: + goring.

[128] Mathnan: Buthnin.

[129] Wax: guttering wax.

[130] Strength: moisture.

[131] The wicked: a band of sinners.

[132] Bones: limbs.

[133] My strength: strength of my might.

[134] Dog: wicked, who is like a dog.

[135] The lion: the one mighty as a lion.

[136] Tall: proud.

[137] Offerings: miracles.

[138] Return: come.

[139] Manna: + and quail.

[140] Righteousness: the righteous.

[141] Name: mighty name.

[142] Of the LORD. Behold: The earth is the Lords. Such is the translation if )yh is read for )h (behold).

[143] Creatures: +and its fullness.

[144] Seas: seven seas.

[145] Ascend: is worthy to ascend.

[146] To a lie: in vain.

[147] You: your word.

[148] Look to you: hope in your word.

[149] Lead me by your merit: guide me in your truth.

[150] Kindness: goodness of the world to come.

[151] Reading Nyytp as 3rd fem. Pl. pf.

[152] You: your word.

[153] LORD: God.

[154] And trusted: and in the word of the Lord I have put my trust.

[155] Inmost thoughts: lit., kidneys and thoughts.

[156] Have gone around: will go around.

[157] Of your glorious tabernacle: designated for your glorious tabernacle.

[158] The LORD: the word of the Lord.

[159] Whom shall I fear: who will I be troubled by?

[160] Hope: trust.

[161] Round about: + me.

[162] Tabernacle: + with a shout.

[163] My prayer when I call: my voice [when] I pray.

[164]The Lord: word of the Lord.

[165] Psalm: + O Lord.

[166] Give: repay.

[167] Them: + O Lord.

[168] Deeds: actions.

[169] Repay: give to.

[170] LORD: word of the Lord.

[171] Received: heard.

[172] On him hope: In his word my heart has placed its trust.

[173] You have aided me: I have been helped.

[174] Bands of angels: sons of gods.

[175] Might: + the house of his presence.

[176] The wilderness: the serpents in the wilderness.

[177] Makes give birth: translation uncertain.

[178] Sanctuary: temple of his sanctuary.

[179] Praise: exalt.

[180] Pit: grave.

[181] Trust: security.

[182] I will cry out: I cried out.

[183] And I said: Zamora; main text omits..

[184] Descend to: lie in.

[185] Praise you: give thanks in your presence.

[186] Faithfulness: truth.

[187] Give you praise: give thanks in your presence.

[188] A strong fortress: a rock, a strong fortress.

[189] That they spread for me: that they hid for my sake.

[190] Direct: deposit.

[191] Relied on the LORD: Put my trust in your word, O Lord.

[192] Wasted: darkened.

[193] Life: days.

[194] Shameful: dishonorable.

[195] From the mind: who is given up from the heart.

[196] You: your word.

[197] Sheol: the grave.

[198] Lips of: lips that speak.

[199] Thought: lit, said.

[200] Mind: heart.

[201] One: son of man.

[202] Moses son of Amram: a son of man.

[203] In your presence: unto you.

[204] From the oppressor: at your side.

[205] Hearts: minds.

[206] Praise: play.

[207] All who afraid: all you who dwell on the earth, be afraid.

[208] Man: son of man.

[209] He chose: were sought.

[210] Forming their heart together: translation uncertain.

[211] Rebellion heart: translation uncertain.

[212] Righteousness: + O God.

[213] In the splendor: because of the light.

[214] Light: at night.

[215] Strong: busy.

[216] Be quiet: + be patient.

[217] See: + the way of.

[218] Burning: emptiness(?).

[219] Is not hid: I have not hid.

[220] Murmur: speak.

[221] Because me: translation uncertain.

[222] Way of my end: to me, O Lord, my end.

[223] He gathers them: translation uncertain.

[224] Hear my supplication: incline your ear to my supplication.

[225] Favor: thoughts.

[226] In my deepest self: lit., in the midst of my bowels.

[227] Are strong: have increased.

[228] Rebuke: uncertain.

[229] Oppressor: + and wicked man.